Dreyfus offered a model of skill development from novice to expert (and beyond). Linehan’s system is also about skill development.
Dreyfus is about process:
Novice: Knowledge by rote; recollection
Competent: Figuring out when to apply rules; recognition
Proficient: Able to relate competing activities with goals; decision
Expert: Intuitive grasp of situations, tacit understanding; awareness
(Master is the fifth stage… does the master understand how to help a novice?)
Linehan is about skills:
Mindfulness: attending to the present moment without judgment
Distress Tolerance: Accepting vagaries of life as such and not personal affronts
Emotional regulation: Linehan’s theory suggests some people have more intense emotional lives, and skills can turn this vulnerability into depth.
Interpersonal effectiveness: Shifting the balance of our connections with others from stress to joy.
A helpful-sounding blog, I’m going to look at from oldest forward